# What’s the difference?

a: the rightward motion of a simple black line can be decomposed into 2 vectors, along and across the line.

b: The vector along the line is not seen, so the line is perceived as moving at right angles to its own length.

c: The rightward motion of a dotted line comprises the same two vectors. However, the black/white contrast along the line is much stronger than the second-order black/gray or white/gray contrast across the line.

d: So now the vector along the line is perceptually weighted more than the vector across the line.

Move a pencil point slowly to left and right across the dots, and they will appear to move up and down. Reason: Each pair of black/white dots contains oblique components. This is a minimal version of Pinna’s expanding/ rotating diamond shapes.